80's Wiki


Turtle Island is home of First Nation peoples in the West, from North to South.[1]
Turtle Island is situated on "Great Turtle" (Earth,[1] as the first people understood the curvature of the Earth’s horizon line).

Lands of Turtle Island before European invasion


First American
United States Federal President
George Washington


In History

During European conquests, the lands of Turtle Island were renamed “America”, by a German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller who created a map in 1507 that depicted the “New World”. Waldseemüller called it "America", having named it after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.[2]

European exploration led to the invasion of Turtle Island, involving many commanders from the European World, since 1500.[3] Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés ravaged Mexico for Spain. American George Washington battled for the States. French Commandant Napoleon Bonaparte menaced peace for French Canada.[4]

Since the European invasion, First Nations people have been subjected to cataloged names —kind of like an “Indian reservation” —such as “Native”, “Injun”, which is a cross corruption of “Indian” and “Indigenous peoples of the Americas”, and “Native American[5] (see Native American name controversy).

World War II
During World War II, Navajo people were enlisted for cryptography in using their Dené–Yeniseian languages, language isolates not familiar to NS Germany.[6]

Mistreatment of first peoples continues throughout the entire decade of the 1980s.



Russell Means criticizes leadership at Senate Hearing 1989 on First Nation affairs

On 30 January 1989, Russell Means harshly criticizes First Nation affairs and leadership of “reservations” at Senate Hearing, to the Special Committee on Investigations. The SCI holds hearings to examine various matters relating to First Nation affairs, focusing on problems arising from US Federal Government representation of First Nation interests, and alleged fraud and corruption in regulating “Indian reservations”. The entire hearing can be viewed from C-SPAN Video Library - Overview of Indian Affairs


  1. 1.0 1.1 Wikipedia, Turtle Island (Native American folklore)
  2. US Library of Congress, How Did America get its Name
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named EW1500
  4. Shannon Selin, Napoleon in French Canada
  5. Wikipedia, Native American name controversy
  6. Wikipedia, Leupp, Arizona#Navajo Code Talkers